Esoteric power, useless, useful: considerations about dreams in cognitive-behavioural therapy

https://doi.org/10.4081/ripppo.2021.543

Authors

  • Antonino Carcione | carcione@terzocentro.it Third Centre of Cognitive Therapy, Rome; Scuola Italiana di Cognitivismo Clinico (SICC), Rome, Italy. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0176-266X
  • Marta Santonastaso Scuola Italiana di Cognitivismo Clinico (SICC), Rome, Italy.
  • Francesca Sferruzza Scuola Italiana di Cognitivismo Clinico (SICC), Rome, Italy.
  • Ilaria Riccardi Third Centre of Cognitive Therapy, Rome; Scuola Italiana di Cognitivismo Clinico (SICC), Rome, Italy.

Abstract

For a long time dreamwork in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) was considered useless and as a technique specific to psychodynamic approaches, consequently overlooked in the treatment course. In the last twenty years, thanks to the contribution of neuroscience studies on sleep and dreams, dreams joined the attention and interest of authors belonging to the CBT field. The central feature of dreamwork in CBT is the abandonment of the exploration of latent meaning, which is instead considered in continuity with the waking life. Dreams reflect a patient’s view of self, world, and future, and are subject to the same cognitive biases as the waking state. Consequently, the dreamwork can be used to get information about the patient, overcome impasses in therapy, restructure self and interpersonal schemas, and stimulate reflective functioning. Therefore, guidelines have been defined and models of well-articulated intervention in terms of process and content, replicable and teachable through specific training structured. This paper aims to provide an overview of theories regarding the use of dreams in CBT, from a clinical perspective, from Beck to more recent proposals.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adler, A. (1927). The practice and theory of individual psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

Alford, B. A., & Norcross, J. C. (1991). Cognitive therapy as integrative therapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 1(3), 175-190. doi: 10.1037/h0101234. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0101234

Alford, B. A., Beck, A. T., & Jones Jr, J. V. (1997). The integrative power of cognitive therapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.11.4.309

Bara, B.G. (2012). Dimmi come sogni. Interpretazione emotiva dell’esperienza onirica. Milano: Mondadori.

Barrett, D. (2002). The ‘royal road’ becomes a shrewd shortcut: The use of dreams in focused treatment. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(1), 55-63. doi: 10.1891/jcop.16.1.55.63701. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1891/jcop.16.1.55.63701

Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W., & Paradiso M.A. (2020). Neuroscience, exploring the Brain. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression. Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects. New York, NY: Hoeber Inc.

Beck, A. T. (2002). Cognitive patterns in dreams and daydreams. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(1), 23. doi: 10.1891/jcop.16.1.23.63703. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1891/jcop.16.1.23.63703

Bordin, E. S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, research & practice, 16(3), 252-260. doi: 10.1037/h0085885. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0085885

Carcione, A., Nicolò, G., & Semerari, A. (2021). Complex Cases of Personality Disorders: Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy. New York, NY: Springer. [In press]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-70455-1

Caroppo, E., Dimaggio, G. G., Popolo, R., Salvatore, G., & Ruggeri, G. (1997). Recurrent oneiric themes: A clinical research on dream evaluation during psychotherapy. New trends in experimental and clinical psychiatry, 13, 275-278.

Cartwright, R. (1977). Night life: Explorations in dreaming. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Centonze, A., Cheli, S., & Dimaggio, G. (2019). Il ruolo del sogno nel promuovere un cambiamento (cosciente) degli schemi interpersonali. Giornale italiano di psicologia, 46(3), 491-496. doi: 10.1421/94511.

De Gennaro, L., Marzano, C., Cipolli, C., & Ferrara, M. (2012). How we remember the stuff that dreams are made of: neurobiological approaches to the brain mechanisms of dream recall. Behavioural brain research, 226(2), 592-596. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.10.017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2011.10.017

Diemer, R. A., Lobell, L. K., Vivino, B. L., & Hill, C. E. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event, interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of counseling psychology, 43(1), 99-112. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.43.1.99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.43.1.99

Dimaggio, G.G., Popolo, R., Serio, A.V., & Ruggeri, G. (1997). Dream emotional experience changes and psychotherapeutic process: An experimental contribu- tion. New Trends in Experimental and Clinical Psychiatry, 8(4), 271-273.

Dimaggio, G. (2004). La riscrittura della mappa del mondo. In G. Rezzonico, D. Liccione (Eds.), Sogni e psicoterapia. L’uso del materiale onirico in psicoterapia cognitiva (pp. 267-276). Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

Dimaggio, G., Montano, A., Popolo, R., & Salvatore, S. (2015). Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy for Personality Disorder: A Treatment Manual. New York, NY: Routledge. doi: 10.4324/9781315744124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315744124

Domhoff, G. W. (2005). Refocusing the neurocognitive approach to dreams: a critique of the Hobson versus Solms debate. Dreaming, 15(1), 3. doi: 10.1037/1053-0797.15.1.3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1053-0797.15.1.3

Eiser, A. S. (2005). Physiology and psychology of dreams. Seminars in neurology, 25(1), 97-105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-867078

Eudell‐Simmons, E. M., & Hilsenroth, M. J. (2005). A review of empirical research supporting four conceptual uses of dreams in psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy: An International Journal of Theory & Practice, 12(4), 255-269. doi: 10.1002/cpp.445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.445

Freeman, A., & White, B. (2002). Dreams and the dream image: Using dreams in cognitive therapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(1), 39-54. doi: 10.1891/jcop.16.1.39.63706. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1891/jcop.16.1.39.63706

Fosshage, J. L. (1983). The psychological function of dreams: A revised psychoanalytic perspective. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 6(4), 641-669.

Fosshage, J. L. (2002). A relational self-psychological perspective. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 47(1), 67-82. doi: 10.1111/1465-5922.00289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1465-5922.00289

Guidano, V.F. (1987). Complexity of the Self. New York, NY: Guilford (Tr. It.: La complessità del Sé. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1988).

Guidano, V. (1991). The Self in process:Toward a post-rationalist cognitive therapy. New York, NY: Guilford (Tr. It.: Il Sé nel suo divenire. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, 1992).

Hall, C.S., & Nordby, V.J. (1972) The Individual and His Dreams. New York, NY: New American Library.

Hill, C. E., Diemer, R., Hess, S., Hillyer, A., & Seeman, R. (1993). Are the effects of dream interpretation on session quality, insight, and emotions due to the dream itself, to projection, or to the interpretation process? Dreaming, 3(4), 269-280. doi: 10.1037/h0094385. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0094385

Hill, C. E. (1996). Working with dreams in psychotherapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Hill, C. E., Diemer, R. A., & Heaton, K. J. (1997). Dream interpretation sessions: Who volunteers, who benefits, and what volunteer clients view as most and least helpful. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44(1), 53-62. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.44.1.53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.44.1.53

Hill, C.E., & Rochlen, A. B. (2002). The Hill cognitive-experiential model of dream interpretation. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(1), 75-89. doi: 10.1891/jcop.16.1.75.63705. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1891/jcop.16.1.75.63705

Hill, C.E., & Knox, S. (2010). The use of dreams in modern psychotherapy. International review of neurobiology, 92, 291-317. doi: 10.1016/S0074-7742(10)92013-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0074-7742(10)92013-8

Hobson J.A., & McCarley R.W. (1977). The brain as a dream state generator: An activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134(12), 1335-1348. doi: 10.1176/ajp.134.12.1335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.134.12.1335

Hobson, J.A. (2009). REM sleep and dreaming: towards a theory of protoconsciousness. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(11), 803-813. doi: 10.1038/nrn2716. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2716

Horvath, A.O. (2013). You can’t step into the same river twice, but you can stub your toes on the same rock: Psychotherapy outcome from a 50-year perspective. Psychoterapy, 50(1), 25-32. doi: 10.1037/a0030899. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030899

Kramer, M., & Glucksman, M. L. (Eds.). (2015). Dream research: Contributions to clinical practice. New York, NY: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315761640

Liotti, G. (2004). L’uso del materiale onirico in psicoterapia cognitiva. In Rezzonico G., Liccione D. (Eds.), Sogni e psicoterapia. L’uso del materiale onirico in psicoterapia cognitiva (pp. 240-251). Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

Mahoney, M. J. (1995). Cognitive and constructive psychotherapies. Theory, research, and practice. New York, NY, Washington, DC: Springer Publishing Company, Inc. and American Psychological Association.

Migone, P. (2019). La psicoanalisi e il sogno. Giornale italiano di psicologia, 46(3), 561-566. doi: 10.1421/94523.

Montangero, J. (2009). Using dreams in cognitive behavioural psychotherapy: Theory, method, and examples. Dreaming, 19(4), 239-254. doi: 10.1037/a0017613. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017613

Panksepp, J. (2000). ‘The dream of reason creates monsters’... especially when we neglect the role of emotions in REM-states. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 988-990. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X00764028. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00764028

Pesant, N., & Zadra, A. (2004). Working with dreams in therapy: What do we know and what should we do? Clinical psychology review, 24(5), 489-512. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2004.05.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2004.05.002

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Revonsuo, A. (2000). The reinterpretation of dreams: an evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioural and Brain Science, 23, 6, 877-901. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00004015

Revonsuo, A., & Valli, K. (2008). How to test the threat-simulation theory. Consciousness and Cognition, 17(4), 1292-1296. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2008.01.007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2008.01.007

Rezzonico, G., & Bani, M. (2015). L’uso dei sogni in psicoterapia cognitivo-comportamentale: a che punto siamo? Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale, 21(3), 285-301.

Rosner, R. I. (1997). Cognitive therapy, constructivism, and dreams: A critical review. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 10(3), 249-273. doi: 10.1080/10720539708404625. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10720539708404625

Rosner, R. I., Lyddon, W. J., & Freeman, A. (2004). Cognitive therapy and dreams: An introduction. Cognitive therapy and dreams, 3-8.

Safran, J. D., & Segal, Z. V. (1990). Interpersonal process in cognitive therapy. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Saliani, A.M. (2021). La relazione terapeutica: tra psicoterapia cognitiva e control-mastery theory. In Perdighe, C., & Gragnani, A. (Eds.), Psicoterapia cognitiva. Comprendere e curare i disturbi emotivi, Milano: Raffaello Cortina.

Schredl, M., Bohusch, C., Kahl, J., Mader, A., & Somesan, A. (2000). The use of dreams in psychotherapy: A survey of psychotherapists in private practice. The Journal of psychotherapy practice and research, 9(2), 81.

Siegel, J. M. (2001). The REM sleep-memory consolidation hypothesis. Science, 294(5544), 1058-1063. doi: 10.1126/science.1063049. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1063049

Skrzypińska, D., & Szmigielska, B. (2018). Dreams in cognitive-behavioural therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy and clinical applications, 6, 97-115. doi: 10.5772/intechopen.70893. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.70893

Vedfelt, O. (2020). Integration versus conflict between schools of dream theory and dreamwork: integrating the psychological core qualities of dreams with the contemporary knowledge of the dreaming brain. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 65(1), 88-115. doi: 10.1111/1468-5922.12574. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5922.12574

Velotti, P., & Zavattini, G. C. (2019). È ancora attuale l’uso del sogno nella pratica clinica? Giornale italiano di psicologia, 46(3), 433-462. doi: 10.1421/94505.

Voss, U., Schermelleh-Engel, K., Windt, J., Frenzel, C., & Hobson, A. (2013). Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(1), 8-21. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2012.11.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2012.11.001

Wampold, B. E. (2015). How important are the common factors in psychoterapy? An up-date. World Psychiatry, 14(3): 270-7. doi: 10.1002/wps.20238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20238

Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema Therapy: A Practitioner’s Guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Downloads

Published
2021-08-30
Info
Issue
Section
Special Section: Working on dreams, from psychotherapy to neuroscience
Keywords:
Dream, dreamwork, cognitive-behavioural therapy, schema, cognitive biases.
Statistics
  • Abstract views: 121

  • PDF: 74
  • HTML: 0
How to Cite
Carcione, A., Santonastaso, M., Sferruzza, F., & Riccardi, I. (2021). Esoteric power, useless, useful: considerations about dreams in cognitive-behavioural therapy. Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process and Outcome, 24(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/ripppo.2021.543

Most read articles by the same author(s)